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Coexistence between humans and large carnivores may depend on carnivore adaptations to use developed landscapes while reducing human encounters.
Trophic cascades reportedly structure ecological communities through indirect species interactions.
We urge Iran’s incoming government to give priority to resolving the country’s worst drought in 50 years.
The Protection Unit of Iran’s Department of Environment has long experienced a shortage of wildlife rangers.
Combining carnivore movements with site visits to investigate predation events can inform investigators of carnivore diets, kill rates, and risk factors for prey
Large carnivore attacks on humans are a serious form of human-wildlife interaction which has increased globally in recent decades.
Recent increases in turkey vulture and black vulture populations in North America have been attributed in part to their success adapting to human-modified landscapes.
People in rural Nepal are experiencing increased livestock depredations from large carnivores; however, limited information is available on factors influencing livestock depredations.
Fishers and American martens often have high niche overlap, but fishers are considered dominant and potentially limiting to martens.
The gray wolf population of Isle Royale National Park suffered an extreme population decline where the remaining pair had low probability of producing viable young.
Human-caused mortality is the main cause of death for large carnivores worldwide and has had serious adverse effects on their populations.
Greater understanding of potential cougar distribution and connectivity is necessary to make sound management and policy decisions as populations re-establish.
With the accelerating pace of global change, it is imperative that we obtain rapid inventories of the status and distribution of wildlife for ecological inferences and conservation planning.
Denning behaviour associated with over‐winter seclusion, fasting, and parturition coinciding with seasonally decreased food availability appears to be paraphyletic in Ursidae phylogenies.
Roads have numerous negative impacts for mammals, but may also serve as attractants due to altered vegetation or provisioning of resources.
Conservation of large carnivores in protected areas with high human use or habitation is challenging due to ecological, political and socioeconomic factors.
We assessed the extent of niche overlap between wolves and coyotes using activity, diet, and space use as evidence for interference competition during three periods related to the availability of white‐tailed deer fawns.
American black bears have significantly different blood clotting parameters between periods of winter hibernation and summer activity.
To restore this apex predator and related ecosystem processes to IRNP, the US National Park Service initiated Wolf translocations in 2018. Here, we describe first-year movements of initial Wolf translocations to Isle Royale.
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes.
Measuring wildlife responses to anthropogenic activities often requires long‐term, large‐scale datasets that are difficult to collect.
Understanding activity and habitat use are important for identifying mechanisms facilitating species co‐occurrence.
Species conservation planning is improved by the direct participation of local people that co-occur with the species of interest as they possess unique information based on their knowledge and experiences.
Quantifying kill rates is central to understanding predation ecology.
Ecological flexibility within animal populations can allow for variation in resource use and foraging decisions.
With eforts to restore large mammal populations following extirpations, it is vital to quantify how they are impacted by human activities and gain insights into population dynamics in relation to conservation goals.
Carrion represents an unpredictable and widely distributed primary food source for vultures and other avian scavengers.
Mortality of mammals from vehicle collisions is common, but there remain questions regarding how species traits influence vehicle collision vulnerability.
Due to autocorrelation‐induced bias, conventional methods severely underestimate the area requirements of GPS‐tracked large mammals.
Identifying and preserving landscape connectivity as well as planning for conflict mitigation are key for facilitating species persistence.
Since 22 January 2020, over 20,000 of an estimated more than 250,000 aquatic migratory birds have been found dead in Miankaleh International Wetland (MIW) in Iran's Mazandaran Province, and the number of mortalities is increasing.
Although Chinese pangolin populations are declining worldwide, it is difficult to monitor their population status because of its rarity and nocturnal behavior.
Protected areas are established for diverse conservation strategies, but their effectiveness for conserving species varies widely.
The possible roles of biological and environmental conditions make it important to determine which potential limiting factors are most influential on northern ungulate survival.
Over the Earth's terrestrial surface, wildlife species are adversely affected by an increasing number of anthropogenic impacts to the landscape, collectively termed the “human footprint”.
The giant African land snail is World’s worst invasive species and is threatening the native species and becoming a major pest for economy loss.
We provide here the data used in analysis of 3 test cases, presented in the manuscript "Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic".
Species with precocial young should be highly synchronous to satiate predators, while prey with nonprecocial young should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis).
Roads have numerous negative impacts for mammals, but may also serve as attractants due to altered vegetation or provisioning of resources. We reviewed the use of roads and their associated features by mammals, in order to understand the ecological factors contributing to road use.
Identifying the trade routes is crucial for developing conservation plans for the pangolin and understanding the attributes of the individuals involved in the illegal trade.
Over the Earth's terrestrial surface, wildlife species are adversely affected by an increasing number of anthropogenic impacts to the landscape.
Human activities frequently result in reptile mortality, but how direct anthropogenic mortality compares to natural morality has not been thoroughly investigated.
Ecological plasticity may index the capacity of individuals, populations, and species to respond to stochasticity.
Mothers should balance the risk and reward of allocating resources to offspring to optimize the reproductive value of both offspring and mother while maximizing lifetime reproductive success by producing high-quality litters.
Maximizing detection probability is a common goal for occupancy studies using camera traps for data collection.
Acquisition of resources can be costly and individuals are predicted to optimize foraging strategies to maximize net energy gain.
Here, we present CauseSpec, a database of global terrestrial vertebrate cause‐specific mortality.
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic and environmental factors on species richness and occurrence is important for conservation.
Livestock depredations (depredations) present real and perceivedthreats to property and human livelihood.
Track surveys are commonly used to estimate abundance and density of large carnivore species, including lions (Panthera leo), but their suitability for estimating species abundance has been challenged.
The red panda Ailurus fulgens is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is threatened by anthropogenic pressures such as livestock grazing.
Estimating spatial and temporal resource use and partitioning among carnivore species varies based on life history and is critical to understanding ecological relationships of sympatric carnivores and their prey.
Terrestrial mammal distribution models typically do not differentiate between sexes when making spatial predictions, which could have important conservation implications.
We introduce the web-application ‘demetR’ to evaluate the effects of harvest scenarios and other conservation policies on brown bear (Ursus arctos) and American black bear (U. americanus) populations.
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research.
Few white‐tailed deer fawn survival studies have occurred in areas with 4 predator species or have considered concurrent densities of deer and predator species.
American martens and fishers are medium‐sized mustelids that occur sympatrically across portions of North America, yet mechanisms of coexistence between the two species are not fully understood.
Species distribution modeling often involves high‐dimensional environmental data. Few studies have evaluated and compared the performance of multiple machine learning (ML) models in handling multicollinearity.
Den sites are important for many species’ ecology, and individuals should choose den sites that minimize risk and maximize energy gain.
Uncertainty continues regarding optimal production approaches for biofuel yield and forage quality within landscapes of competing wildlife conservation objectives.
Vertebrates are declining worldwide, yet a comprehensive examination of the sources of mortality is lacking.
Spatial and temporal heterogeneity are fundamental mechanisms structuring home ranges.
Wildlife-vehicle collisions introduce a considerable amount of carrion into the environment, but scavenger use of this resource has not been extensively investigated.
Conducting species inventories is important to provide baseline information essential for management and conservation.
Biomass cultivation in marginal landscapes such as airport grasslands may have detrimental effects on aviation safety as well as conservation efforts for grassland birds.
Exotic species introductions are a global phenomenon and protected areas are susceptible to them.
Variation in life history strategies facilitates the near global distribution of mammals by expanding realized niche width.
Variation in body size across populations of brown bears (Ursus arctos ) is largely a function of the availability and quality of nutritional resources while plasticity within populations reflects utilized niche width with implications for population resiliency.
Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction.
Large mammals pose a significant risk to U.S. aircraft safety within airport operation areas and cost airlines millions of dollars in repairs annually.
Information on species distribution range is a prerequisite for setting conservation strategies.
Animal space use is influenced by many factors and can affect individual survival and fitness.
Denning characteristics of brown bears (Ursus arctos) have been described in numerous studies; however, population specific factors can greatly influence the location and timing of denning.
Following one of the most successful relocations of a large carnivore species, American black bears have expanded from Arkansas to the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri, USA , where they were potentially extirpated in the early 1900s.
Multiple small populations of American black bears including the recently delisted Louisiana black bear subspecies occupy a fragmented landscape in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA.
Infanticide occurs in a variety of animal species and infanticide risk has large implications for the evolution of behavior.
Increases in landscape connectivity can improve a species’ ability to cope with habitat fragmentation and degradation.
Previously, American black bears (Ursus americanus) were thought to follow the pattern of female philopatry and male-biased dispersal.
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species.
The Sunda stink-badger (Mydaus javanensis) is one of the most frequently recorded carnivore species in portions of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo.
Behavioral differences within a population can allow use of a greater range of resources among individuals.
Bears (Ursidae) have extensive home ranges and may move long distances, thereby potentially serving as hosts to, and vectors of, large numbers of ticks.
Estimating abundance of large carnivores is often challenging, yet important for their effective conservation.
Sharing information among data types based on the underlying ecological, and recognizing observation biases, can improve estimation of individual and global parameters.
There is limited research examining the effects of biofuel-focused grasslands on grassland bird reproductive success and conservation.
The spatial scales at which animals make behavioral trade-offs is assumed to relate to the scales at which factors most limiting resources and increasing mortality risk occur.
Landscape connectivity is vital for species conservation in human-modified landscapes, lessening population declines and genetic depression caused by habitat loss and fragmentation.
Disentangling the complexities that influence animal space use poses substantial challenges based on decision trade-offs and constraints imposed on animals.
Few studies have directly quantified bird use of corn, wheat, and soybean fields relative to bird-aircraft collision (strike) hazard levels to support land cover recommendations.
Coarse-scale patterns of distribution and abundance of species are the outcome of processes occurring at finer spatial scales.
The effects of landscape alteration on wildlife have drawn increasing attention from ecologists as landscapes have rapidly changed worldwide.
Declining populations of large carnivores worldwide, and the complexities of managing human-carnivore conflicts, require accurate population estimates of large carnivores to promote their long-term persistence through well-informed management.
The otter civet is a small carnivore native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and southern Thailand.
Understanding relative hazards of wildlife to aircraft is important for developing effective management programs that can minimize hazards from wildlife strikes.
We analysed coexistence patterns between two mesocarnivores, Geoffroy's cat and culpeo fox in northern Patagonia, Argentina.
One key assumption often inferred with using radio-equipped individuals is that the transmitter has no effect on the metric of interest
Dominance is a behavioural mechanism that allows individuals to access and monopolize resources which should ultimately improve their fitness.
Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space.
American black bears were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, United States, in the early twentieth century, but have recolonized this part of the range since the 1960s.
Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales.
Mobile computing and big data analytics have great potential for improving efficiency, productivity, and knowledge discovery in conservation tasks.
Countries that allow sport hunting of African lions increasingly are mandating minimum age regulations for harvested individuals that require accurate aging techniques.
Accounting for low and heterogeneous detection probabilities in large mammal capture–recapture sampling designs is a persistent challenge.
Tail-mounted transmitters have been used successfully in temperate regions of North America and Europe but have not been tested in more northern parts of American beaver range.
Short-tailed mongoose is known to inhabit Borneo, Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia. Locality records show that it is widespread and probably common in at least the northern half of Borneo.
Small-toothed palm civet Arctogalidia trivirgata occurs widely across Borneo. Eighty-two spatially precise records were used to model its distribution on the island
Banded linsang is restricted to Sundaic South-east Asia and inhabits a wide altitudinal range. It has never been studied in the field.
Collared mongoose is known to inhabit Borneo, Sumatra and possibly the Philippines. It occurs widely in Borneo, possibly with the exception of South Kalimantan.
The yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula is a wide-ranging species across much of Asia. It is active mainly during the day, is semi-arboreal and has an omnivorous diet.
Hose’s civet Diplogale hosei is one of the world’s least known carnivores and is endemic to Borneo.
The ecology of the Malay weasel is poorly known, making it difficult to predict how its populations are likely to be affected by ongoing deforestation and forest degradation.
The common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus is a small carnivore occurring in a broad array of habitats on Borneo, including logged and unlogged forest, cultivated land, and the outskirts of villages and towns.
The Malay civet is a small carnivore occurring on several Indonesian islands, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. The Malay civet occurs in diverse habitats, including primary and logged forest, and disturbed habitats near villages.
The banded civet is a small, little-known civet with a geographical range comprising Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra and some associated islands), Malaysia, Brunei, peninsular Myanmar and peninsular Thailand.
The Sunda stink-badger is a small carnivore inhabiting the South-east Asian islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Natuna Islands
Across its global range the masked palm civet uses a range of habitats in tropical and subtropical regions, from lowlands to highlands, but its exact ecological requirements and the use of modified habitat remains unclear.
The binturong is thought to be forest dependent, although it has been recorded in logged forest and its exact habitat requirements remain unclear.
In the current ‘sixth mass extinction event in the history of life’, biological diversity is decreasing at 100–1000 times the pre-human rates.
The Bornean ferret badger is one of the least known Bornean carnivores, and is currently classified as Data Deficient on The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Functional diversity is a relatively recent approach to quantify species diversity and may provide a better understanding of the linkages between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning.
In many temperate ecosystems animal carcasses resultant from wildlife harvest can provide a high-quality food source for myriad facultative scavengers.
Borneo harbours more endemic carnivores than does any other island in the world except Madagascar.
Factors relevant to resource selection in carnivores may vary across spatial and temporal scales, both in magnitude and rank.
Baiting white-tailed deer has evolved into a controversial issue of wildlife management.
Interpretation of nest survival estimates may be improved by incorporating the search method used to locate nests as a covariate.
Wildlife incidents with aircraft are of concern in the United States as they pose a risk to human safety and economic losses for the aviation industry.
Ocelots are one of the most common felids in the Neotropics and in the absence of large carnivores, can function as apex predators.
Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition.
Anthropogenic disturbance is an important factor influencing biological invasions.
Large protected areas in North America have long supported carnivores living separately from people, but many of the recent recoveries have occurred in landscapes shared with people.
Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world.
The distribution of animals is influenced by numerous factors including spatial distribution and temporal availability of resources.
Following functional extirpation in Missouri, American black bear populations in this state have been increasing in recent years through recolonization from re-established populations in northern Arkansas.
Balancing the ecological importance of large carnivores with human tolerances across multiple‐use landscapes presents a complex and often controversial management scenario.
Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother’s inclusive fitness.
Understanding species distributions and population responses to environmental parameters is important for addressing landscape-level species conservation.
The trade-off between predator avoidance and foraging is a key decision making factor that shapes an organism's adaptive behaviour and movement patterns.
Responses of biodiversity to changes in both land cover and climate are recognized but still poorly understood.
American black bears occur on numerous islands within the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and provide an opportunity to better understand patterns in abundance and genetic structure among island populations.
Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified.
Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalactivity in animals.
We investigated whether expanding fisher populations are benefiting from a mesopredator release following reductions in their carnivore predator communities.
Individual variation and fitness are cornerstones of evolution by natural selection.
Wildlife incidents with U.S. civil aircraft cost an estimated $1.4 billion from 1990 to 2010, with mammals 5 times more likely to cause damage than other wildlife.
Egg oiling is a form of management in which bird eggs are coated with mineral or corn oil, preventing gas exchange through the shell and killing embryos.
Bird use of solar installations should be examined before wide-scale implementation to determine whether such changes in land use adversely affect aviation safety by increasing risk of bird-aircraft collisions.
Collisions between aircraft and wildlife have increased markedly since first recorded in 1905.
Radiotelemetry and unmarked occupancy modeling have been used to estimate animal population growth, but have not been compared for ungulates.
Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators
We assessed the potential effects of cattle farming and habitat degradation on the diversity and composition of the large-and medium-sized mammal assemblage in a private reserve in North eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Large carnivores are considered a primary source of mortality for many ungulate populations, but harvest by hunters is the primary means of population management.
American black bear (Ursus americanus) damage to apiaries can result in substantial economic loss.
From foraging theory, generalist predators should increase consumption of prey if prey availability increases.
Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation.
Wildlife incidents with aircraft cost the United States (U.S.) civil aviation industry >US$1.4 billion in estimated damages and loss of revenue from 1990 to 2009.
The vulnerable red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is endemic to the Himalayas.
We documented the seasonal food habits of the red panda Ailurus fulgens based on the analysis of 152 fecal pellet groups in Rara National Park, Nepal, using micro-histological techniques.
Increasing, human activities influence wildlife populations in numerous ways including habitat selection, demography, behavior, and physiology.
We evaluated a cable neck‐restraint for live capture of coyotes (Canis latrans ) in Michigan, USA, from 6 January to 22 March 2011.
American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from Missouri (USA) by the early 1900s and began re-colonizing apparent suitable habitat in southern Missouri following reintroduction efforts in Arkansas.
Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have advanced our ability to estimate population density for wide ranging animals by explicitly incorporating individual movement.
Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcintus) are considered a nuisance species throughout its U.S. range.
We investigated the diet of wolves in Glacier Bay, Alaska, from 12 May to 28 June in both 2010 and 2011.
Understanding factors that influence recruitment can improve wildlife conservation.
Endangered species conservation requires the understanding of factors affecting animal condition and performance.
The rapid rate of decline toward global extinction of mammals, particularly carnivores, has alerted the conservation community.
Wildlife collisions with aircraft threaten human safety and cause substantial economic loss.
Management of modern airports is a task beset by conflicting priorities.
The various habitats that compose airport property, particularly undeveloped lands, inherently contribute in some measure to attraction of wildlife.
We assessed the global conservation status of small carnivores in Africa based on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Introduced mammals in Patagonia are believed to negatively influence native ecosystems.
More than 90% of harlequin frog species (Atelopus spp.), endemic to the Americas, are currently threatened with extinction.
Advancement in ecological methods predicting species distributions is a crucial precondition for deriving sound management actions.
To better understand the role of vertebrates in the natural history of this bacterium, we evaluated small mammals and ground-dwelling birds for evidence of infection with R. parkeri or exposure to the organism.
Long-distance vocalizations by canids play an important role in communication among individuals, and researchers have elicited these vocalizations to estimate canid occurrence and relative abundance.
Forage availability can affect body condition and reproduction in wildlife.
The role of predation in ecological systems has received considerable attention in scientific literature and is one of the most important, yet least understood aspects of carnivore ecology.
Habitat selection is a hierarchical process in which animals select resources at varying spatial scales.
Many North American ursids rely on an annual hyperphagic period to obtain fat reserves necessary for winter survival and reproduction.
We assessed the influence of ketamine dosage, xylazine dosage, body condition, age class, and injection site on successful adult female deer chemical immobilization.
Rafinesque's big-eared bats and southeastern myotis are species of concern whose current population statuses are unknown.
A common error in many studies is that a species may go undetected when they are actually present, thus leading to underestimates of the true population.
Radiotelemetry has become one of the most valuable fi eld techniques in wildlife ecology because it allows biologists to collect location and other data remotely.
Tropical carnivores often occur at low densities and non-invasive techniques may be inadequate to meet research and monitoring goals.
Effective methods for estimating occurrence and abundance of carnivores are limited and often expensive in labour or equipment.
American beavers (Castor canadensis) forage on various aquatic and terrestrial plant species.
Because many animals fly, climb, swim, or dig throughout volumes of air, water, and soil, space use is most appropriately characterized within three spatial dimensions: x, y, and z.
Effects of visual obstruction on white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) include enhanced vigilance and flight‐initiation distances.
Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife.
Global species loss during the present human-caused mass-extinction far exceeds background rates and is detrimental to human existence.
Assessing ungulate reproduction is important to biologists for managing populations and predicting trends.
Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii ) is currently endangered throughout its neotropical range with an expected population decline >50% in the next 30 years.
Over-winter denning is a critical component of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) fitness.
Spotted knapweed is an exotic plant that displaces native vegetation leading to altered plant and animal communities.
Species inventory is considered an important component of natural resource management in National Park System units.
Animals in unfamiliar environments may increase exploratory movements, which may result in predation mortalities (the site familiarity hypothesis).
Historically abundant throughout Mississippi, American black bears (Ursus americanus) have declined due to habitat loss and overharvest.
When estimating population density from data collected on non-invasive detector arrays, recently developed spatial capture-recapture models present an advance over non-spatial models by accounting for individual movement.
Although genetic and analytical methods for estimating wildlife abundance have improved rapidly over the last decade, effective methods for collecting hair samples from terrestrial carnivores in a mark–recapture framework have lagged.
Information regarding American black bear (Ursus americanus) mortality caused by disease is limited. Pneumonia is a common respiratory disease that affects many species of wildlife and can result in death.
Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are a long-lived and widely distributed species that occupy diverse habitats, suggesting ecological flexibility.
Winter denning is a critical component of American black bear ecology.
Accurate determination of sex in harvested species is critical for understanding demography and developing population models for management.
We estimated American black bear abundance across the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during using tetracycline-laden baits and hunter harvest in mark–recapture analyses.
Aircraft incidents with ungulates cause substantial economic losses and pose risks to human safety.
Understanding the relative hazards of wildlife to aircraft is important for developing effective management programs.
Bald eagle is an adaptable predatory bird that commonly captures live prey, but regularly scavenges.
Wolves Canis spp. in the Great Lakes region have expanded into rural areas where livestock production occurs, resulting in an increase of conflicts.
Wolves (Canis spp.) have recolonized the Great Lakes region and expanded into agricultural areas where there is increasing concern of conflict with livestock.
Harvest data (e.g., number of animals harvested, trapper effort) are an important source of information for state wildlife agencies to manage harvested furbearers.
A recent complete assessment of the conservation status of 5487 mammal species demonstrated that at least one-fifth are at risk of extinction in the wild.
The ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide.
Aircraft collisions with birds and other wildlife pose increasing safety and financial concerns to the aviation industry worldwide.
Herbivores must balance energy needs with avoiding risks, using various cues to assess predation risk.
Estimating the dynamics of furbearer populations is challenging because their elusive behavior and low densities make observations difficult.
American black bears are opportunistic omnivores and can be proficient predators of neonate ungulates, but predation of adult ungulates is rare.
We investigated the endoparasite community in introduced American martens in relation to host sex, age, and abundance.
The island of Borneo has 25 species of carnivore, which include more endemic species than any other island except Madagascar.
We compared efficiency and selectivity of 2 cable restraints to live‐capture coyotes.
Symposium ecology and conservation of small carnivores (Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, and Mephitidae) in Mesoamerica
Small carnivores, families Mustelidae, Procyonidae and Mephitidae, are some of the lesser known species in Colombia; however, they represent an important component of Colombian mammal fauna.