Reproduction: GPS location data suggested female wolf 014F denned in spring 2019 and established several rendezvous sites. Images from a remote camera in September 2019 support at least two pups were reared. Location data from GPS collars also demonstrated denning activity for wolf 001F in early April 2020. Genetic analysis of scat samples will provide additional support for reproduction of these wolves. Limited data suggested potential for denning activity for wolves 012M and 015F during spring 2020; however, collar failure precluded confirmation.
Cluster investigations: We investigated clusters of wolf GPS locations during May–September 2019 to estimate predation or scavenging events. Of 381 location clusters investigated, we identified 50 predation events of which 24 were moose (Alces alces), 19 were beaver (Castor canadensis), 3 were snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), and 4 were other species. We documented 117 instances of concurrent space use by wolves at these clusters. Thirty-one instances (26.5%) were associated with prey remains, 62.4% were associated with bed sites, and 11.1% were unknown.
Moose: We estimated abundance of moose during 14–15 March 2020 using a double-count distance sampling framework from a helicopter. We surveyed about 95% of Isle Royale and observed 236 moose in 136 groups.
Trail cameras: During summer 2019 we installed 156 remote cameras about 1 km apart on and off trails to document wolf distribution in relation to prey species and determine how wolves and other mammals respond to visitor abundance and distribution. We will continue monitoring wolf and moose populations with our partners to characterize their effects on this ecosystem and the success of the wolf introduction program.